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Books about drug testing

 Drug Test Secrets

-- by Steven Landau

Drug Testing at Work: A Guide for Employers
-- by Beverly A Potter

Pass the Test: An Employee Guide to Drug Testing
-- by Beverly A. Potter

-- by John Mrozek, Dr. John Mrozek

The Medical Review Officer's Guide to Drug Testing
-- by Robert B. Swotinsky (Editor)

Drug Testing and the Workplace
-- by Jim Kelaher MD CPA

Safety Testing of New Drugs: Laboratory Predictions and Clinical Performance
-- by D.R., Md. Frcp Laurence

Pissing on Demand: Workplace Drug Testing and the Rise of the Detox Industry (Alternative Criminology)
-- by Kenneth D. Tunnell

If you are interesting about purchase of mentioned books, please send us e-mail, we will try to help you. Also if we will have a lot of request we probably will open books department to serve you better. 

Drug and Alcohol Abuse
The Authoritative Guide for Parents, Teachers, and Counselors Contributors: H. Thomas Milhorn Jr. - author. Publisher: Perseus Books (Current Publisher: Perseus Publishing). Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 1994. 

Abuse of alcohol and other drugs has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. The "war on drugs" quite clearly has been less than effective. The time has come for parents, teachers, and counselors to take matters into their own hands. Prevention remains the only true hope for solving our nation's drug problem. Parents, teachers, and counselors are in the best positions to affect children's knowledge and attitudes about the abuse of alcohol and other drugs. Waiting for others, such as school administrations, communities, or governments, to do the job will only increase the risk that children become drug addicted. 

Before teaching children about drugs, you must first educate yourself. Children have little difficulty perceiving who is a credible speaker and who is not. In this book you will find important information on the classification of drugs of abuse, how drugs of abuse differ from other drugs, alcoholism as a disease, why adolescents abuse drugs, how to prevent drug abuse, how to tell if your child is abusing drugs, what you can do if your child is abusing drugs, what goes on in treatment, special issues of young women, what help is available for the rest of the family, what to expect when your child comes home from treatment, what to do if he or she uses drugs again, whether drug abuse causes mental problems, how drug abuse and AIDS are related, and whether you have issues of your own on which you need to work. 

The average ages of first alcohol use and first illicit drug use in the United States are 12 and 13 years, respectively. Well over one-half of American high school seniors have tried an illicit drug, and over one-third have used an illicit drug other than marijuana; nearly one in six seniors has tried cocaine. High school girls come close to the level of boys in their use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Close to one-half of 4th through 6th graders report pressure from other students to try alcohol, and over one-fourth of these children say there is pressure to try cocaine. 

Accidents is the leading cause of death among adolescents. Of the 25,000 accidental deaths among them annually, 40 percent are alcohol related. Homicide is the second leading cause of adolescent deaths. Of the 5500 adolescent homicide victims each year, 30 percent are intoxicated at the time of death. The suicide rate among drug -using adolescents is particularly high. Overall, drug abuse is one of the leading, if not the leading, cause of adolescent deaths. Less dramatic, but more insidious, are the developmental, emotional, and social costs of adolescent drug abuse. 

What Are Drugs of Abuse?
Drugs of abuse are chemical substances that exert a mood-altering effect on the brain and which are capable of producing addiction. They are abused for the feelings they produce. 

Legal drugs are described by generic names and trade names. They are prescribed by physicians or sold over-the-counter. Many of them, especially some of the prescription drugs, are frequently abused. Generic names are related to the chemical structure of the drug. Every drug has a different chemical structure. Trade names, on the other hand, are names given to drugs by the pharmaceutical companies who manufacture them. When several companies manufacture the same drug, it will have more than one trade name. 

Generic names traditionally begin with a lower case letter and trade names begin with an upper case letter. For example, propoxyphene (generic name) is called Darvon by one manufacturer and SK-65 by another one. Darvon and SK-65 are trade names. Trade names are often placed in parentheses behind the generic name; for example, propoxyphene (Darvon, SK-65). 

How Do Drugs of Abuse Differ from Other Drugs?
rugs of abuse possess certain characteristics that other drugs lo not: • They produce an altered mood state such as sedation, relaxation, or euphoria. 
• These effects reinforce the drug use; that is, the feelings aroused by the drug make the user want to use it again. 
• Compulsive use occurs; the user feels as though he must have the drug. 
• Use continues despite the known, harmful effects. Many alcoholics, for example, continue to drink despite severe, irreversible liver damage. 
• Regular and temporal patterns of use occur. Drug users tend to use drugs on a regular basis and at specific times during the day. One patient, for example, broke out in a cold sweat, felt anxious, and developed a rapid heart rate at six o'clock every evening. The problem was quite obviously not withdrawal because it had been far too long since her last cocaine use. 

Why Do Adolescents Abuse Drugs?
Adolescence is defined as the period between the ages of 13 and 18. During this time, physical and psychological growth undergo significant development, and hormonal changes accelerate sexual maturation. As a result of these rapidly changing states, adolescents tend to feel awkward and insecure. They feel inadequate about their appearance and popularity. Adolescence for many is a time of frustration, anger, and rebellion. 

Peer affiliation and desire for peer acceptance are hallmarks of adolescence. They feel the need for acceptance, praise, and approval by their peers more profoundly than in any other stage of life. Adolescents test limits and manipulate others. They tend to experiment with extremes of values and behaviors, and are often confused and scared. One minute they demand total independence, and the next they cry out for protection from themselves and the world in which they live. They often experience freefloating anxiety and identity crises, and commonly act out, which is a subconscious mechanism of expressing unacknowledged internal conflict. Adolescence is a period of exploration. 

The Parent's Role
To begin, let me say that nothing you do or, for that matter, don't do will guarantee that your children will never use drugs. There are, however, a number of steps you can take to reduce the likelihood that they will turn to drugs. 

Learn about Drugs
Needless to say, it is not possible to take steps to prevent something if you don't know anything about what you are trying to prevent. Buying this book was a good start. Study it, save it, and refer back to it when the need arises. 

Take other opportunities to learn about this subject. Make a special effort to watch television programs about drug abuse, attend local conferences on the subject when they are available, and read other material on the subject from time to time. 

A significant part of this self-education is to learn what drug paraphernalia looks like and what it is used for. You should be able to recognize such items as roach clips, bongs, cocaine vials, and crack pipes. 

The Teacher/Counselor's Role
As a teacher or a counselor, you can engage in many of the same types of prevention efforts described for parents in the previous chapter. You can: • learn about drugs 
• be cognizant of teaching opportunities at school 
• support your school's no- drug policy if it has a formal one 
• examine your own attitudes about the use of alcohol and other drugs 
• promote responsible behavior 
• promote alternatives to drug use 
• help develop self-esteem 
• allow more freedom in decision-making 
• be conscious of mood states 
• get involved 

What Can I Do If My Child Is Abusing Drugs?
Having determined that it is likely that your child is addicted to alcohol or other drugs, the next step is to consult a professional. This can be initiated by placing a phone call to an adolescent alcohol and drug treatment facility. Many advertise on the radio or television, and all have listings in the yellow pages of the telephone directory. Alternatively your physician or a friend may be able to recommend one. Place the call, and request an interview with an adolescent counselor or an addictionist -- a physician who specializes in addictive disorders. The first interview is usually granted free of charge. 

At the interview, present the information you have gathered in the assessment. Following this, the counselor or addictionist will interview your child and make a recommendation. They may determine that it is unlikely that your child has a drug problem and refer him to a psychologist to be evaluated for a behavioral disorder, or they may decide that it is highly likely that your child is addicted to drugs and recommend admission for treatment. If the information you provide is inadequate to make a diagnosis of drug addiction, but sufficient to suspect it, a short admission period for further evaluation may be recommended. 

What Goes On in Treatment?
Once your child agrees to treatment, or is court-ordered to receive treatment, you must identify a program suitable for your particular adolescent. Generally, two options are available: inpatient treatment or outpatient treatment. Other less often used programs include half-way houses and therapeutic communities, known as residential treatment. The treatment professional is best qualified to advise you on which type of treatment is best suited for your child. 

Inpatient treatment takes place in an alcohol and drug unit of a general medical-surgical hospital or in a freestanding treatment facility. It is often referred to as primary treatment. The length of time of inpatient treatment varies, but may last four to six weeks. 

Inpatient programs often have elaborate rules with some sort of behavioral privilege system. Patients may not be allowed to make or receive telephone calls or have visitors during the first week. Preaching, scolding, and lecturing are avoided. Adolescents resent it, and it is not effective. They have had enough of this at home without any positive effects. Because peer influence is a powerful force, it is used as much as possible. 

Do Young Women Have Special Issues?
Young women, like young men, are equally at risk for developing alcoholism, prescription drug addiction, and addiction to illicit drugs. Women, however, have the capacity to directly affect another human being -- the unborn child -- by their drug use. 

In recent years, equality for women has included greater freedom to drink. As a result, heavy drinking is on the rise among young women. The number of women in the United States who drink alcohol has increased from 45 percent to 66 percent over the past 40 years. Surveys in the community indicate that 5 percent of women are heavy drinkers. Because society considers it less acceptable for a woman to be a heavy drinker than a man, a woman's drinking problem is often hidden or ignored by family, friends, school, and employer. This attitude delays or prevents alcoholic women from receiving help. 

Ulcer surgery, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, fatty liver, hypertension, anemia, and malnutrition occur at significantly higher rates in alcoholic women than men. 

What Help Is Available for the Rest of the Family?
The effects of drug addiction on the user's family are profound. Members tend to function inappropriately in a codependent manner. Beattie defines a codependent as a person who lets another person's behavior -- in this case, the addict -- adversely affect him or her and who is obsessed with controlling the addict's behavior. It is estimated that there are 40 million people who are codependent for alcoholism. There are no statistics estimating how many people are codependent with addicts who use other drugs. 

Most families are basically healthy, meaning that family members are usually happy, working, and contributing members of society. A healthy family, however, is not necessarily perfect. Members go through the illnesses, career crises, accidents, and losses that are a natural part of normal living. They suffer from all the usual stresses of raising children. Healthy families remain intact because they adjust to changes in a healthy manner. Curran has identified 15 traits of a healthy family. 

What Happens When My Child Comes Home from Treatment?
It is naive to believe that when your child comes home from treatment all of your problems will be over. In the first place, it is a difficult task to raise a normal, nondrug-using adolescent. This won't change. In addition, family members will be learning to deal with resentments over past occurrences. At the same time it will be important for them to develop an understanding of the attitudes that can enhance or inhibit the returning member's recovery. Learning about recovery activities, such as aftercare and support groups, will also be important. Knowledge of the stages of recovery, partial recovery, and drugs -- both illicit and prescription -- that can lead to relapse can ease the process of re-entry for all concerned. 

What If Drugs Are Used Again?
The ever-present risk of relapse can be a major parental concern. Understanding the relapse process, factors contributing to relapse, how the risk of relapse can be reduced, and what to do should relapse occur can help ease concerns. 

Relapse, like recovery, is also a process. The actual act of returning to drinking or drug use is preceded by changes in behavior, attitude, feelings or emotions, and thinking. Symptoms of the relapse process, prior to the drinking or using episode, include fatigue, dishonesty with self and others, impatience, argumentativeness (a need to be right), depression, frustration, selfpity, cockiness, complacency, expecting too much from others, letting up on recovery disciplines, wanting too much, omnipotence (having all the answers), and an "it can't happen to me" attitude. In Alcoholics Anonymous, this is spoken of as "stinking thinking," "building up to a drink," and "dry drunk." 

Does Drug Abuse Cause Mental Problems?
Before we can answer the question of whether or not drug abuse causes mental problems, it is first necessary to clarify what we mean by mental problems. The field of psychiatry classifies mental disorders based on signs and symptoms. For instance, a patient with an inability to experience pleasure in things that once gave pleasure, feelings of hopelessness, early morning awakening, and decreased appetite fits the criteria for a psychiatric disorder known as major depression. 

All substances of abuse affect the brain and change its level of functioning. It should not be surprising then that drugs, as a result of intoxication, overdose, or withdrawal, can produce alterations in mood, ability to reason, and content of thinking. As a result, abuse of various substances can produce signs and symptoms of nearly any psychiatric disorder. However, the signs and symptoms resulting from substance abuse, unlike many true psychiatric disorders, usually abate in a few weeks to months after cessation of drinking or using. 

How Are Drugs of Abuse and AIDS Related?
In the summer of 1981, a group of physicians in Los Angeles reported 15 cases of a rare kind of pneumonia in young homosexual men. At about the same time, physicians in New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles reported 26 cases of an unusual form of skin cancer, again in homosexual young men. Both of these disorders, prior to this, had been seen only in people with severely compromised immune systems. In 1982, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta recognized these as symptoms of a new disease and named it Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The virus that causes AIDS was identified in 1983 and is now named Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). 

AIDS has now been reported in all 50 states and in at least 100 countries worldwide. In 1993, the number of cases of AIDS reported in the United States has risen to about 325,000. Overall, HIV is responsible for 19 percent of deaths in young men. 

Do I Have Problems of My Own Which I Need to Work On?
It has been my experience that many drug -abusing adolescents come from dysfunctional families. Although there are many causes of dysfunction, a common one is for a parent, or both parents, to have grown up in a dysfunctional family themselves. 

Alcoholism is a leading cause of family dysfunction. As alcoholics gradually lose control over their own lives and behavior, they wield more and more power over those close to them. Although they are increasingly dependent on family members for emotional and social support, they play dictator to get it. They control what family members say, what they do, and even what they think. Did you grow up in an alcoholic home? If so, you may need to understand and resolve your own problems before you can tackle your adolescent's problems. 

Pharmacology of Drugs of Abuse
An understanding of the basic principles of pharmacology is essential to the understanding of how drugs of abuse exert their harmful effects. 

Four major processes determine both the intensity and duration of a drug's action: (1) absorption, (2) distribution, (3) metabolism, and (4) excretion. The branch of pharmacology that is concerned with these four processes is called pharmacokinetics. 

Route of Administration
Drugs can be ingested orally, insufflated (snorted up the nose), inhaled, or injected with a needle. Ingested dugs must cross the intestinal wall to reach the bloodstream. Others, such as alcohol, may be partially absorbed in the stomach. 

Other Depressants
In addition to alcohol, drugs that depress the brain include barbiturates, barbiturate-like drugs, meprobamate, chloral hydrate, and benzodiazepines. These drugs are used mainly to calm and relax ( sedatives ) or to induce sleep ( hypnotics ). Collectively, they are known as sedative-hypnotics. 

A large number of barbiturates are available by prescription. They are classified as ultrashort-acting, short-to-intermediateacting, and long-acting, based on how long they stay in the body. 

Generic name Trade name 
methohexital Brevital 
thiopental Pentothal 

The term opioid is used to designate a group of drugs that are morphine-like in their actions. Because of the fact that opioid drugs tend to sedate, they are often referred to as narcotics, a word that comes from narcosis (meaning sleep). Because they also produce euphoria, opioid drugs are often abused. Opioids are commonly used in medicine to reduce pain, as cough suppressants, and to control diarrhea. 

Narcotic addicts will go to extremes to get opioid drugs, including faking medical problems. Faking a kidney stone is a common act. Addicts may even prick their fingers with pins to add drops of blood to their urine samples to fool the laboratories. They commonly go away with prescriptions for very powerful narcotics. 

An addict acquainted with the author would go from one emergency department to another faking symptoms of a heart attack. He was exceptionally good at it, and invariably was admitted to coronary care unit after coronary care unit where he had his "chest pain" treated with intravenous morphine. 

Narcotic addicts have been known to fake medical problems requiring abdominal surgery to get drugs. 

Cocaine comes from the Erythroxylon coca plant. The drug can be used in several forms: coca leaves, coca paste, cocaine hydrochloride, freebase cocaine, and rock or crack cocaine. The only medical use of cocaine is as a topical anesthetic, and as a vasoconstrictor in nasal surgery. By constricting blood vessels cocaine reduces tissue swelling and makes it easier for physicians to see into the nose. 

Coca Leaves
Coca leaves are toasted, mixed with alkaline ash from other burned leaves, and chewed. The alkaline material improves absorption into the blood vessels of the mouth. Chewing coca leaves is a relatively safe practice because the leaves contain only 0.5 to 1 percent cocaine. Although absorption is initially effective, the local constriction of blood vessels, which reduces local blood flow, slows absorption. Coca leaf chewing is a practice limited to the Indians of the Andes Mountains in South America. 

The most common form of nicotine addiction is cigarette smoking; however, nicotine addiction to a lesser extent is also associated with cigar and pipe smoking, as well as with the use of smokeless tobacco (snuff and chewing tobacco). 

There are approximately 3.7 million teenage smokers -- about 16 percent of all teenagers. The majority of them claim they expect to quit smoking within a year. Three out of four will fail. They greatly underestimate the addictiveness of nicotine and greatly overestimate their ability to control it. 

Among youths with at least two smoking friends, nearly onehalf are smokers, whereas among youths with no smoking friends, only 3 percent smoke. Teenagers are three times as likely to smoke if family members smoke. The most influential family members are older brothers and sisters. In homes where older siblings smoke, 30 percent of the younger siblings smoke compared with 15 percent of teenagers from homes where only the parents smoke. 

According to Dupont, adolescents who smoke are twice as likely to use alcohol, nine times as likely to use depressant and stimulant drugs, ten times as likely to smoke marijuana, and fourteen times as likely to use cocaine, opioids. 

Other Stimulants
Other stimulant drugs include amphetamines, amphetamine cogeners, caffeine, methylphenidate, and phenylpropanolamine. 

The amphetamines are prescription drugs sometimes used for the treatment of obesity, attention deficit disorder (hyperactive child syndrome), and narcolepsy (inability to stay awake). They are Schedule II drugs. Illicit amphetamines are manufactured in basement laboratories. The amphetamines include: 

Generic name Trade name 
amphetamine sulfate Benzedrine 
dextroamphetamine Dexedrine 
methamphetamine Desoxyn 
dextroamphetamine + amphetamine sulfate Biphetamine 

Amphetamine comes as capsules or tablets that are taken orally. Methamphetamine comes as a white powder, or tablets. 

Cannabinoids are derivatives of the Indian hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. The plant contains more than 60 cannabinoids, of which delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive substance. It also contains several carcinogens. 

This is the dried flowering tops, leaves, and stems of the hemp plant, which are usually chopped up and smoked in cigarette form, called a joint, or in pipes. It can be eaten as well. Marijuana is the main cannabinoid abused in the United States. It is a particular favorite of adolescents. Marijuana looks like dried parsley with stems and/or seeds. Chopped marijuana resembles grass clippings from which the name "grass" comes. In the United States, the THC concentration of most marijuana is 1 to 2 percent. The most potent form of marijuana is known as sinsemilla, with a THC concentration that averages about 7 percent. The marijuana smoked today is three to four times as potent as the marijuana smoked ten years ago. 

Phencyclidine (PCP) is an illegal substance appearing in the form of a white to off-white crystalline powder that is easily and inexpensively synthesized from readily available, legal chemicals. At least 60 PCP-related drugs have been developed. Phencyclidine is most commonly mixed with marijuana, tobacco, oregano, or parsley, and then smoked. It can also be snorted, taken as a pill or liquid by mouth, or injected intravenously. Phencyclidine is abused for its euphoric effects, its ability to decrease inhibition, its ability to instill 
feelings of power and eliminate pain, and the altered perceptions of time, space, and body image it produces. 

Fortunately, PCP use has become fairly uncommon in recent years. The author has seen two noteworthy cases. One was a young man who was dragged into the emergency room, fighting all the way, by four burly policemen. His indiscretion had been to show up for church naked and in a psychotic state. It took an equal number of male orderlies to hold him down long enough to sedate him. A drug screen was positive for PCP Nudity in public is one of the bizarre behavioral manifestations of PCP intoxication. 

The most dramatic response to PCP the author has seen was in another patient brought to the emergency room by the police. 

The inhalants are either volatile liquid substances whose fumes are inhaled directly, or gases that are inhaled. They include solvents and aerosols, nitrites, and nitrous oxide.
Solvents and Aerosols
Solvents and aerosols are complex compounds of distilled petroleum and natural gas. They are liquids at room temperature, but evaporate readily. Abused substances in this group include: cementg and glues 
cleaning solutions 
fighter fluid 
Liquid Paper 
paint thinners 
spot removers 
varnish remover 

Adolescent boys most commonly abuse solvents and aerosols recreationally because they have access to many household products and do not have access to more conventional drugs. 

Anabolic Steroids
Anabolic steroids are used primarily in an attempt to increase muscle mass and athletic performance. They are more accurately called anabolic-androgenic steroids because they produce an anabolic effect, which is protein synthesis for building muscle, and an androgenic effect, or masculinization, due to their testosteronelike properties. 

All anabolic steroids in use today are derivatives of the male sex hormone, testosterone. They are legally manufactured for a few legitimate medical reasons, but probably 80 percent of them are diverted to the black market for unsupervised use. Anabolic steroids come in tablet and injectable forms. Some of the more common ones are:

Generic name Trade name 
Oral forms 
ethylestrenol Maxibolin, Orabolin 
fluoxymesterone Halotestin, Android-F 
methandrostenolone Dianabol 

The hallucinogenic drugs are favorites of adolescents. They include a variety of substances whose psychedelic effects range all the way from simple visual distortions to frank hallucinations. The hallucinogens include the following drugs. 

LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)
LSD, usually known as "acid" in the drug culture, is derived from a substance found in a parasitic fungus that grows on rye and other grains. It is a white, odorless material that is usually mixed with colored material when sold illegally. It is manufactured as a capsule, tablet, or liquid, as well as impregnated on blotter paper or in thin gelatin squares. It can be taken orally or licked off blotter paper. In addition, gelatin and liquid can be put into the eyes. It is an extremely potent drug so that only a very small amount has to be used. 

The hallucinogenic drugs are favorites of adolescents. They include a variety of substances whose psychedelic effects range all the way from simple visual distortions to frank hallucinations. The hallucinogens include the following drugs. 

LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)
LSD, usually known as "acid" in the drug culture, is derived from a substance found in a parasitic fungus that grows on rye and other grains. It is a white, odorless material that is usually mixed with colored material when sold illegally. It is manufactured as a capsule, tablet, or liquid, as well as impregnated on blotter paper or in thin gelatin squares. It can be taken orally or licked off blotter paper. In addition, gelatin and liquid can be put into the eyes. It is an extremely potent drug so that only a very small amount has to be used. It is a popular drug of adolescents. 

This book began by saying that there are 15 questions to which parents and teachers should know the answers. The following is a brief discussion of these questions and their answers. 
1. What are drugs of abuse? Drugs of abuse are substances that alter the way people feel, and which are capable of producing addiction. 
2. How do drugs of abuse differ from other drugs? Drugs of abuse possess a number of characteristics that other drugs do not. In addition to altering the way people feel and producing addiction, the drugs themselves reinforce drug use, often cause withdrawal symptoms, and produce drug craving. They do all this by altering the functioning of certain chemicals in the brain known as neurotransmitters. 
3. Is alcoholism truly a disease? Evidence indicates that alcoholism is a disease and that it possesses biological, psychological, and social characteristics. For many individuals, the tendency to develop the disease is transmitted genetically. 
4. Why do adolescents abuse drugs? Adolescents abuse drugs for a number of reasons; however, the reason given most commonly is that drugs make them feel good and they do not believe that drugs cause them any harm.

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